Eircom is Ireland’s largest telecoms provider. Formed in 1984 as Bord Telecom Éireann under the Posts and Telecommunications Act of 1983, Eircom has gone through many changes and controversies. Known today as Eir and incorporated in Jersey (in France), the company is known for charging the highest line rental fees in Europe, and has been acquired multiple times by other companies - some of which were accused of asset stripping.
Eir provides a lot of services today - not just landline phone services and broadband, but also TV services, home security services (known locally as Phonewatch), cellular data and mobile phone services, and more besides. They’re a big company - and this is largely down to the fact that they were once Ireland’s “official” telecoms provider and ISP, being owned and run by the government until privatisation was completed in 1999.
Eir has done well - but it hasn’t been without its share of issues. The main concern of this article relates to the privacy of your communications with Eir users (specifically, via email), as well as a small warning to those that do not read the fine print.
Encryption and Email
Email is tricky business. The technology backing email is ancient, and compatibility must be maintained as email providers are often quite slow to adopt updated technologies. If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it, right?
Here’s the thing: Email is old. Real old. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s - certainly a simpler time for the internet. In the 60s, we weren’t worrying about the NSA, hackers or bots crawling the internet and stealing our data.
In the beginning, email was unencrypted. This meant that anyone sitting between you and your intended recipient was able to open up and read everything in your email, no questions asked. Today, people are more aware of their privacy and that’s great - we should be taking steps to protect ourselves. Unfortunately, however, people are unaware of the real privacy implications behind the simple stuff we take for granted. Email and SMS are two inherently insecure technologies, and deserve as much attention as the services that companies like Facebook and Twitter provide. Sadly, email is not as sexy as social media at large, and the mainstream media will never cover it in detail.
The Path to Email
In today’s world, we do have some additional security we can make use of when we look at email. The biggest and most widely used of these is known as TLS - Transport Layer Security. TLS is an encryption process that happens at various levels of the email sending process, but to understand it we need to look at how email works as a whole.
Most people don’t think of the actual machinery of how things like email work. The above is all most people care about - you send an email, it takes a trip across the Internet somehow, and it ends up with your recipient. In an ideal world, this is all a user needs to know - and we’re getting that point, but we’re not there yet.
What if we look inside that cloud? The email we sent above takes a fairly long trip in order to reach its destination. At a basic level, the data you send over the internet needs to take a trip through a bunch of places - we call these “hops”. Since the cable running from your house doesn’t directly connect to your friend in Paris, we need to be able to route our data to them in the most direct way possible.
Eir’s SMTP servers are at
smtp.eircom.net. Using this address as an example, we can trace the route our data
takes to get to that SMTP server.
C:\>tracert smtp.eircom.net Tracing route to mail1.eircom.net [126.96.36.199] over a maximum of 30 hops: 1 1 ms <1 ms <1 ms 192.168.1.1 2 13 ms 12 ms 11 ms 188.8.131.52 3 12 ms 12 ms 12 ms 184.108.40.206 4 13 ms 12 ms 12 ms 220.127.116.11 5 13 ms 12 ms 12 ms lag-40.br1.6cr.border.eircom.net [18.104.22.168] 6 18 ms 14 ms 13 ms 22.214.171.124 7 13 ms 14 ms 13 ms lag-201-corea-srl-hcore1-srl.corea.srl.core.eircom.net [126.96.36.199] 8 14 ms 13 ms 14 ms lag-8-pe1-crz-corea-srl.pe1.crz.crz-crz.eircom.net [188.8.131.52] 9 15 ms 21 ms 24 ms 184.108.40.206 10 14 ms 13 ms 14 ms mail1.eircom.net [220.127.116.11]
The first hop is the router we connect our phone or computer to - that’s the device that provides internet to you. After that, we’re looking at the internet’s routing infrastructure, until hop 5 - at this point we enter Eir’s network. After that, we make 5 more hops until we finally reach our destination at hop 10.
This is a pretty short round-trip, and you’d expect this - I am in Ireland, which is where Eir operates. The further away the server is from you, physically, the more hops you’ll tend to need to go through to reach it.
The above is how all Internet traffic is routed. However, email adds another layer to this - SMTP relaying.
SMTP is the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, and it’s used whenever anyone sends an email. SMTP servers are responsible for ensuring that your email makes it to the correct place - and this is a very important job. There are issues with this approach, but we’ll just focus on those that are relevant to our privacy issue.
Assuming we’re using Eir’s email services and our friend uses Gmail, a simplified trip might look like this…
We’ve sent an email using Eir’s SMTP server, and it was received by Gmail’s SMTP server. Your friend then connects to Gmail’s IMAP server using the Internet Message Access Protocol, and downloads the email you sent them.
As you can see, there are a lot of actors in this process - we are sending our email through the 10 hops we mentioned earlier to reach Eir’s SMTP server, and then our email has to make a number of extra unspecified hops to reach Gmail’s SMTP server. After that, it is retrieved by Gmail’s IMAP server and it makes a final set of hops to reach your friend’s device, which has requested any potential new emails that the server might know about.
This system works well for the most part, and it’s about as efficient as we can manage right now - but there are some security considerations to think about. The main issue is that of encryption - encryption ensures that only our targeted recipient can read our email. In order for things to be entirely secure, we need encryption to exist at all stages of this process:
- Between your phone and Eir’s SMTP server
- Between Eir’s SMTP server and Gmail’s SMTP server
- While the email is in storage
- Between Gmail’s IMAP server and your friend’s phone
As mentioned before, encryption is usually provided using TLS, or Transport Layer Security. In 1999, an RFC was published relating to TLS and IMAP, POP3 and ACAP. Later, in 2002, an RFC was published relating to TLS and SMTP. RFCs are international standards that exist to provide a baseline to be implemented by software all over the world. If an RFC exists for the technology you’re using, you are expected to implement it, and there are many good reasons for this.
This, however, is where we hit a problem. If you’re a Gmail user, you may have seen a red lock icon when reading a sent or received email. This lock icons means that Gmail was either unable to send the email to the target server using TLS, or that the target server sent the email to Gmail without using TLS. This means that the email was sent or received insecurely, and may have been inspected or read in full during its journey across the internet.
As you may be suspecting, Eir is an email provider that brings up a lot of red lock icons for Gmail users. There are a few possible reasons that this might happen:
- One of the servers straight up doesn’t support the TLS extension
- The servers both support the TLS extension, but one of them only supports insecure versions of TLS
- The servers both support the TLS extension, but TLS negotiation is impossible due to some unknown issue
At the end of the day, what this means is that your email was transmitted without encryption at some point during its journey across the internet. During that part of the trip, any server or device that it has to take a hop through will be able to read the full content of the email. That’s pretty bad!
I did a quick check of Eir’s services, and I noted the following:
- Eir’s IMAP server does support TLS
- Eir’s public SMTP server does support TLS
So, this implies that Eir’s backend mail delivery servers are causing a problem. Indeed, inspecting the headers
of an example email from an Eir user shows that the email was ultimately relayed to Gmail by a server known as
mta00.svc.cra.dublin.eircom.net - One of Eir’s Mail Transfer Agents (MTAs). From this, we can surmise
that this MTA does not support sufficient levels of encryption.
It’s impossible to say how many hops it took our email to reach Google’s servers from there. However, Google is quite a high value target - it isn’t impossible that it may have been intercepted on its way there.
So, what can we do about this? We have two realistic options:
- Add our own encryption layer - if we do this, then sender and recipient information is still exposed, but the content of the email remains private
- Stop using Eir’s email service
The former can be achieved using GPG, the Gnu Privacy Guard. GPG is not user-friendly and requires your recipient to also be using it, so it’s not recommended for the average user. If you’d still like to investigate this route, then I highly recommend checking out Protonmail. They provide a free, reliable email service that has GPG built-in for when you need it.
For everyone else, Gmail is another good option. It’s free, reliable and user-friendly, but it doesn’t provide any of the GPG support that Protonmail does. If you need a free service and you use an email client like Microsoft Office Outlook or Thunderbird, then Gmail will be the better option for you.
The state of email is pretty good right now. Google’s Safer Email Transparency Report shows that 92% of emails both sent and received through Gmail are encrypted with TLS. That’s not bad!
The true solution to this is - at least right now - to encourage all email providers to implement TLS into their services. If you use Eir and you can’t switch, then raise a complaint with their support team. If they tell you that this isn’t a real issue, don’t back down - chances are that, in reading this article, you now know more than their support agents do about this particular issue.
There have been some attempts at replacing SMTP, but it seems that SMTP is here to stay - so we should all work towards making it safer for everyone.
The Fine Print
It pays to read the fine print. It’s a pain, and often these terms of service are written in language that only a lawyer could love - but it contains information that is incredibly useful. Here’s a story that shows what may happen when you don’t read it…
Back when broadband was new to rural Ireland, we signed up for dialup with Eir - or Eircom, as it was known back then. Later on, we switched to DSL with them, a marked upgrade at the time.
I had my email with Microsoft Hotmail - which is now known as Outlook Email - and later Gmail. My mom, however, decided to use the Eircom email address that came with our internet services. She built up a business around this email address, and used it for all kinds of things.
One day, like many other Irish people, we realised that Eircom were shafting us. Poor service for more cost drove us to another provider - Perlico, which is now Vodafone. We made the switch, and our service was much better.
As you would expect, however, mom’s email ceased to be accessible. As it was provided as part of our internet service with Eircom, and we had switched to another provider, they simply disabled access to it. This is common sense, really - but it’s something that many people don’t consider, and many people have been caught out by this.
We contacted Eircom, and after a couple weeks of complaining, regained access to the email account. It may also be worth noting that the account was never deleted - all of the emails that were in the account were still there, and it had received emails sent during the time we were unable to access it. I hope that this policy has changed, but somehow, I feel like it’s unlikely.
Takeaways and Conclusions
Congratulations for making it this far! This article was not intended to be a technical overview of how TLS, email and related technologies work - for the technical-minded among us, well, you know how to dig up that information yourselves.
In conclusion: Security and privacy are very important. You should take steps to protect yourself from bad actors - and you should be able to rely on your service providers to do the same. Eir does not seem to be on top of this, unfortunately - so I advise that you switch to Protonmail for your email service, or Gmail if you don’t need GPG support and use an email client.
We all have a responsibility to each other to provide security when it comes to personal information. Even if you’re not a service provider, your choice of email provider will impact the privacy of everyone you contact, and everyone that contacts you. It’s a reasonable assumption to assume that a big service provider knows what they’re doing, but that isn’t always the case - vigilance is always good!